By David Pietrusza
The presidential election of 1920 was once between history’s so much dramatic. Six once-and-future presidents-Wilson, Harding, Coolidge, Hoover, and Teddy and Franklin Roosevelt-jockeyed for the White residence. With citizens opting for among Wilson’s League of countries and Harding’s front-porch isolationism, the 1920 election formed glossy the United States. girls received the vote. Republicans outspent Democrats through four to at least one, as citizens witnessed the 1st wide newsreel insurance, smooth crusade ads, and effects broadcast on radio. the United States had turn into an city kingdom: cars, mass construction, chain shops, and simple credits reworked the economic climate. 1920 paints a brilliant portrait of the United States, beset via the crimson Scare, jailed dissidents, Prohibition, smoke-filled rooms, bomb-throwing terrorists, and the Klan, gingerly crossing modernity’s threshold.</Div>
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Extra resources for 1920: The Year of the Six Presidents
This situation was not the result of any peculiar virtue inherent to the Dutch or to Dutch society, but rather was a consequence of circumstances, together with the decidedly pragmatic attitudes of the civil authorities across the board. During the first decades of the Revolt only a small minority of the population of the rebel provinces were committed supporters of the Reformed Church and, although they were able to take a degree of control of the political system of the new state quite incommensurate with their numbers, they were never in a position to enforce religious conformity on the population as a whole.
In medieval Europe the clergy had been a separate estate, alongside the nobles and the third estate, with a special spiritual status marked by a distinctive way of life, including celibacy and characteristic modes of dress. Protestant ministers, in contrast, were expected to marry and their dress declared them to be part of the respectable middle classes. They were no longer a separate estate but were one of the learned professions, with a university education in theology behind them. Of course the Catholic clergy continued to exist – or had been reintroduced by the Holland Mission – but in much smaller numbers, with mission priests relying heavily on lay support and particularly on the services of semi-religious women, the klopjes, whose status remained uncertain but who played an indispensible role in ensuring Catholic survival in the Republic.
There were also significant differences in the range of services available from town to town. Only the largest towns could provide a full range of services: for example, only Leiden had a university, though Amsterdam and, later, Rotterdam had illustrious schools which provided similar educational services. ) Even the smallest of the towns had a respectable range of basic religious, educational and transport services, but more specialist needs were catered 48 structures and change for only by the larger towns.