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By Simon Collier

Delivering an outline of Chilean historical past for the overall reader in addition to the professional, this article employs basic and secondary fabrics to investigate the nation's political, financial, and social evolution from independence to 2002. in contrast to different works, the amount examines extensive the latest occasions of Chile's heritage: the diversification of its economic climate, unfold of democratic associations, development of public healthiness, and emergence of a wealthy highbrow tradition. First version Hb (1996): 0-521-56075-6 First version Pb (1996): 0-521-56827-7

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Extra resources for A History of Chile, 1808-2002

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A more serious latent issue, beyond doubt, was the creole desire to win access to the highest levels of administration. This can be seen in the sporadic attempts by creoles to bar peninsulares from provincialships in the religious orders and to keep them off the cabildo of Santiago. Despite such signs, relations between creoles and peninsulares seem on the whole to have been very harmonious. However, creole awareness of the defects of colonial society was evidently sharpening by the close of the eighteenth century.

He often lived in Santiago some of the time, perhaps served a term or two on the cabildo (municipal council), and possibly held a public office of some kind. It was not always “he,” either, as is shown in the case of the widow Catalina de los R´ıos Lisperguer, better known by her nickname, La Quintrala. This sadistic and probably murderous seventeenth-century La Ligua valley landowner (an image of powerful female character, it should be noted) was to become one of Chile’s most enduring national legends.

For here the invaders were eventually checked by the indigenous inhabitants whose land they had come to conquer. The exact size of the native population of Chile at the time of Valdivia’s arrival will never be known with certainty: Rolando Mellafe’s judicious estimate puts the figure at between 800,000 and 1,200,000. Nor were the native Americans encountered by Valdivia’s men a single nation, though most of them shared a common language. In the northern Central Valley, the Picunche peoples had earlier been assimilated into the great Inca empire of Peru, but full Inca rule stopped at the Maip´o River (though exercised more tenuously at least as far as the Maule River, 160 or so miles farther south).

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