Download A History of Modern Britain by Andrew Marr PDF

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By Andrew Marr

This attractive quantity tells the tale of ways the nice political visions and idealisms of Victorian Britain got here to be defeated by way of a tradition of consumerism, megastar, and self-gratification. It explains how in every one decade, political leaders stumbled on themselves confounded by way of the British humans, who continuously grew to become out to be more durable to herd than estimated. traditionally Britain has been a rustic at the area first of invasion, then of financial ruin, then at the weak entrance line of the chilly conflict, and later within the leading edge of the good commencing up of capital and migration. This background follows the entire political and fiscal tales of the trendy period in addition to with such social traits as comedy, vehicles, the battle opposed to homosexuals, oil-men and punks, Margaret Thatcher’s incredible stable success, political lies, and the real heroes of British theater.

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In achieving this side-force requirement, designers can make use of Whitcomb’s supercritical airfoil technology for the crosssectional shape of the winglet airfoil. The winglets must also be designed to avoid flow separation both on the winglet surface and the winglet-wing juncture at low-speed, high-lift conditions as well as cruise conditions. The winglet concept was evaluated and tested extensively in the 8-Foot Transonic Pressure Tunnel from 1974 to 1976. In July 1976, Whitcomb published a general design approach that summarized the aerodynamic technology involved in winglet design.

As the flow encounters the wingtip shape, it rolls up over the tip side edge resulting in the wellknown trailing vortices displayed by lifting wings. The energy expended in this phenomenon is directly responsible for the induced drag, which can be extremely large for certain aircraft wing configurations—particularly under high-lift, low-speed flight conditions. Induced drag also represents a significant decrement in aircraft efficiency for subsonic transports operating at high subsonic speeds and accounts for as much as 50 percent of total drag.

The ATLIT was a modified Piper Seneca airplane having a GA(W)-1 wing section, a wing with increased aspect ratio, fullspan Fowler flaps, and roll-control spoilers; it also incorporated Langley-developed winglets. The flight tests were conducted at Langley from 1974 to 1976, under the management of Joseph W. Stickle, with a test team that included Bruce J. Holmes (then a graduate student from the University of Kansas). Holmes was later employed by Langley, and he subsequently became an internationally recognized NASA leader in advanced general aviation transportation systems and the revitalization of the industry in the 1990s.

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