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By Guillermo Lora

This booklet is an abridgement and translation of Guillermo Lora's five-volume historical past. It bargains with the strengthening and radicalisation of Bolivia's organised labour circulate, which culminated within the drastic innovative alterations of the Fifties. the 1st part deals a reinterpretation of Bolivian background within the century previous the revolution, considered from the viewpoint of the operating type. the second one part discusses in additional element the foremost political occasions and doctrinal problems with a interval during which the writer, as secretary of the Trotskyist Partido Obrero Revolucionario, himself usually performed an lively half. regardless of the novel upheaval that happened within the fifties and the mobilisation of large sectors of the inhabitants round such radical pursuits as direct estate seizures, union-nominated ministers and union, army and employee keep an eye on, the labour circulation used to be not able to keep up its conquests within the Sixties. The concluding chapters describe the interval of renewed army repression and the continued efforts of the labour move to withstand.

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There were no important differences in the programmes of the two candidates, Pacheco and Arce, and it can be said that the principal aim of both of them was to consolidate the predominance of mining interests in the country's political life. 14 Pacheco said that he wished to combat the aristocratic tendencies of the leading sectors of the Conservative party and give the industrialists a more influential role in politics. There were no rebellions whatsoever against his government, because he had made a pact with the Conservatives who agreed to wait patiently for their turn to govern.

The day began with prayers in the chapel; this was followed by one hour of study, three hours of 'scientific' classes, six hours in the workshops and two hours dedicated to religion. By 1855 the number of pupils in the two trade schools had reached 135, by no means a negligible figure for the time. 26 Protection versus free trade The government of Belzu Alberto Gutierrez was the first historian who was perceptive enough to realise that the coming to power of Manuel Isidoro Belzu signified the beginning of a new era in the life of the nation; for previous historians it was nothing more than another barracks revolt.

On the other hand their art and skill improved until they reached perfection. During their period of study and apprenticeship they came to know their branch of production thoroughly and often succeeded in become true artists in their trade. But the regulations of the guilds contributed to the stagnation of production, were an impediment to the development of their tools and placed a great deal of emphasis on the manual skill of the artisan. The regulations of the carpenters' and tailors' guilds, which were 20 Protection versus free trade approved in 1854, fit perfectly into the medieval conception of the corporative organisation of work.

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