By Mark P. Silverman
Initially released in 1993, this e-book of essays is a principally nonmathematical account of a few of the unusual behaviour, either classical and quantum, exhibited by means of relocating debris, fluids and waves. Drawn from the author's researches in quantum mechanics, atomic and nuclear physics, electromagnetism and optics, gravity, thermodynamics, and the physics of fluids, the essays describe varied actual structures whose behaviour provokes shock and demanding situations the mind's eye. There are unusual methods for which no visualisable mechanism should be given; tactics that appear to violate basic actual legislation, yet which in fact don't; strategies which are superficially good understood, but turn into subtly devious. The essays tackle questions or controversies from whose solution emerge classes of basic value in regards to the secret and fascination of movement. an individual with a easy physics historical past or with an curiosity within the basic questions of physics will locate this publication of use.
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Extra resources for And Yet It Moves: Strange Systems and Subtle Questions in Physics
26 The unimaginably strange behaviour of free electrons displaced laterally towards slit 1 or towards slit 2? It is the direction of the magnetic field, and consequently the sense of circulation of the vector potential, that breaks the symmetry. The field within the solenoid can be oriented either 'up' o r 'down'; a change in the field orientation would reverse the direction of fringe shift, even though the electrons do not directly experience the magnetic field. There is no mechanistic explanation.
This seemingly small difference in intrinsic angular momentum is the basis for major qualitative differences in physical behaviour. e. any number of them can be accommodated in a given quantum state; this, in essence, is the reason (from the standpoint of quantum mechanics) for the existence of classical light waves. Electrons are fermions, which signifies that at most only one electron can occupy a given quantum state; electrons cannot form classical waves. Should not at least some of these properties - mass, charge, spin, statistics - affect the wave function and thereby distinguish electron from photon interference?
Since both the path and the mathematical form of the vector potential are arbitrary, the phase of the wave function is not uniquely prescribed. g. the Schrodinger equation for nonrelativistic electrons or the more general Dirac equation for relativistic electrons) when the vector potential is present, if qo is a solution when the vector potential is absent. The demonstration is quite straightforward, and, as far as I know, the above relation in itself scarcely raised any eyebrows before the AB paper pointed out unexpected physical consequences.