By William F. Sater Ph.D. MA AB
The 12 months 1879 marked the start of 1 of the longest, bloodiest conflicts of nineteenth-century Latin the United States. The conflict of the Pacific pitted Peru and Bolivia opposed to Chile in a fight initiated over a festering border dispute. The clash observed Chile’s and Peru’s armored warships vying for regulate of sea lanes and integrated one of many first examples of using naval torpedoes. On land, huge armies utilizing the main smooth weapons—breech-loading rifles, Gatling weapons, and steel-barreled artillery—clashed in battles that left hundreds of thousands of guys useless at the battlefields. ultimately, the opponents made over their respective army institutions, growing a lot wanted, civilian-supported provide, transportation, and scientific devices. Chile finally prevailed. Bolivia misplaced its seacoast besides worthy nitrate and copper deposits to Chile, and Peru used to be pressured to cede mineral wealthy Tarapaca and the province of Arica to the victor. Employing the first and secondary resources of the international locations concerned, William F. Sater deals the definitive research of the conflict's naval and army campaigns. Andean Tragedy not just areas the warfare in a very important foreign context, but in addition explains why this devastating clash led to a Chilean victory. (20080801)
Read or Download Andean Tragedy: Fighting the War of the Pacific, 1879-1884 (Studies in War, Society, and the Militar) PDF
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Extra info for Andean Tragedy: Fighting the War of the Pacific, 1879-1884 (Studies in War, Society, and the Militar)
Many expected, or perhaps hoped, that the seizure of Lima would have ended the struggle. But Chile’s failure to snare the remnants of the army defending the capital allowed the vanquished Peruvian troops to ﬂee to the Andean highlands, from where they would harass the Chileans. When no Peruvian politician would cede territory to the Chileans in return for a peace treaty, the war degenerated into a ferocious guerrilla struggle, not unlike that which beset Napoleon in Spain. The campaign to eradicate the last vestiges of Peruvian resistance became the conﬂict’s most difﬁcult, most savage, and most prolonged period of ﬁghting.
The incident so inﬂamed both Chile and Bolivia that they set aside their own squabbles to repel the Spanish invasion. Pending a ﬁnal solution, the border was drawn on the twenty-fourth parallel. Eventually, Peru’s coastal batteries in Callao drove Madrid’s ﬂeet from South American waters but only after it had seriously damaged Chile’s principal port, Valparaíso. With peace restored to the Paciﬁc, a new Bolivian government under Gen. Mariano Melgarejo tried again in 1866 to solve the boundary issue.
José María de Acha, permission to use force if Chile refused to recognize Bolivian sovereignty over the disputed land. The border issue might have plunged the nations into a war but for an unexpected revival of imperialism: an 1864 Spanish scientiﬁc expedition, in fact a naval task force, used the supposed maltreatment of its citizens as an excuse to seize Peru’s Chincha Islands. The incident so inﬂamed both Chile and Bolivia that they set aside their own squabbles to repel the Spanish invasion.